16 shortage: In the passage the phrase is plural, teacher shortages, but in the summary the singular form is required.
17 teacher-training: This part of the summary is a clear paraphrase of part of paragraph one in the passage. Remember that hyphenated words count as one word.
18 profession: The answer is in paragraph one. Here, the noun phrase has been changed; the teaching profession in the passage needs to be changed to the profession of teaching to fit in the summary.
19 obvious: Again, the noun phrase has been changed. At the start of paragraph two the passage refers to the governments obvious contempt for the teaching profession. The phrase has been changed in the summary, but the form of the word needed to fill the space need not be changed. (See 18 above.)
20 increasing: The answer is in paragraph three. The word needed to complete the space is the same as that in the passage, although in the passage it functions as an adjective and in the summary as a verb form.
21 recent: The answer is in paragraph four. Here, it is important to recognize the synonyms used in the summary for parts of the text: series in the summary replaces catalogue in the text. Even if you do not know the meaning of certain words, you should be able to work out their meaning from their position in the relative sentences in the original text and the summary.
23 More students are entering teacher-training courses.
The opposite is true. In the first paragraph it states: fewer students are entering teacher-training courses.
24 The government is right to be surprised that there are problems in schools.
The answer is to be found in the last sentence of the first paragraph. The writer is being ironic, given the facts stated in the paragraph there should be no surprise: And the government wonders... .
25 Teachers are too weighed down by administrative duties to stir up trouble.
The answer is in the third paragraph. This is what cynics would have us believe; the writer does not say if this is actually the case or not.
26 All teachers are cynics.
The answer is in the last sentence of the third paragraph: all teachers is not the same as most teachers. Note that must indicates deduction/conclusion and therefore opinion.
27 Politicians are not as dangerous as educational theorists, who know even less than the former about educational theory.
The answer is in the sixth paragraph. The problem here is the negatives. It is important to check that the text and the statement have the same meaning; in this case politicians are not as dangerous as educational theorists has the same meaning as politicians who know little about classroom practice or educational theorists who know even less, but are more dangerous.
28 Any experienced classroom practitioner knows that the initiatives on teaching and learning that governments have tried to impose on schools do not work.
The answer is in the eighth paragraph. The statement is a paraphrase of the last sentence, but it is important to check carefully that there are no differences in questions of this kind; in this case the meaning is the same.
29 The governments attitude with regard to teachers is of great interest to the general public.
There is no mention of this claim in the text.
Choose the appropriate letter A-D and write it in box 30 on your answer sheet.
||Which one of the following is the most suitable title for the passage?
||A Politicians and teachers.
||B A profession undervalued.
||C Recruitment difficulties in the teaching profession.
||D Teacher-training needs improvement.
||The theme throughout the passage is that the teaching profession does not get the respect it deserves from a number of sources. The other headings all refer to only specific sections of the text.